In 2008, we published a review article entitled “Differential diagnosis of gynecologic organ-related diseases in women presenting with ascites” in the Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecololgy. Ascites might be the results of the physiological or pathological status, and the underlying mechanisms varied greatly in the different genders. The diagnostic challenge is frequently found in clinical practice. This review summarizes the recent knowledge and clinical practice for women presenting with ascites. Approach includes history, physical examination, laboratory examination, ultrasound, paracentesis and possible laparoscopy. Accurate and prompt diagnosis not only provides the better care and management but also diminishes the unnecessary psychological stress in women presenting with ascites.
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