Studies in the field of neuroscience and psychology have hypothesized that a causal association exists between atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported a higher risk of ADHD in children with atopic diseases; however, the relationship between ADHD symptoms and atopic diseases remains unclear. We systematically reviewed observational cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to investigate the relationship between atopic diseases and ADHD symptom severity (hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention). The majority of studies showed a statistically significant association between atopic diseases and both ADHD symptoms, with substantial heterogeneity in the outcome of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Remarkably decreased heterogeneity and statistical significance were observed in the second meta-analysis of ADHD-related behavior symptoms in atopic patients without ADHD. Our study indicated that atopic diseases not only associated with ADHD but also ADHD symptoms severity. This association was even observed in children with subthreshold ADHD, indicating that atopic diseases may play a role in the spectrum of ADHD symptom severity. Trial registration: This study was registered on PROSPERO (registration ID: CRD42020213219).
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