Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis and primarily affects children <5 years of age. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is unusual, but there can be associated severe complications in KD patients. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for ICU admission. Retrospectively, we reviewed charts of all children who had a discharge diagnosis of KD from 2001 through 2009. Clinical presentation, laboratory data, and outcome were collected for analysis of the association with ICU admission in KD patients. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify factor interactions. There were 334 KD patients, including 24 patients in ICU admission, included in the analysis. Coronary artery lesions (CALs) and failure of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment were more frequently found in the ICU group (P < 0.0001). Total counts of white blood cells, hemoglobin levels, C-reactive protein, and albumin levels showed significant association with ICU admission (P < 0.05). Moderate tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was found only in the ICU admission group. MDR analyses of factor interactions identified that TR interacted with CAL with a prediction accuracy of 77.78 %. (P = 0.001). Patients with KD who are IVIG resistant and/or who are found to have CALs are at increased risk for ICU admission. Most importantly, moderate TR was significantly found in KD patients only in the ICU group. This may highlight the great value of moderate TR in predicting ICU admission for patients with KD.
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