Pediatric cancer survivors experiencing gonadotoxic chemoradiation therapy may encounter subfertility or permanent infertility. However, previous studies of cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue (ITT) have mainly been limited to in vitro studies. In this study, we aim to evaluate in vitro and in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for solid surface-vitrified (SSV) ITT grafts until adulthood. The donors and recipients were transgenic and wild-type mice, respectively, with fresh ITT grafts used as the control group. In our study, the frozen ITT grafts remained intact as shown in the BLI, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. Graft survival was analyzed by BLI on days 1, 2, 5, 7, and 31 after transplantation. The signals decreased by quantum yield between days 2 and 5 in both groups, but gradually increased afterwards until day 31, which were significantly stronger than day 1 after transplantation (p = 0.008). The differences between the two groups were constantly insignificant, suggesting that both fresh and SSV ITT can survive, accompanied by spermatogenesis, until adulthood. The ITT in both groups presented similar BLI intensity and intact cells and ultrastructures for spermatogenesis. This translational model demonstrates the great potential of SSV for ITT in pre-pubertal male fertility preservation.
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