We previously showed that thrombin induces interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8 expression via the protein kinase C (PKC)α/c-Src-dependent IκB kinaseα/β (IKKα/β)/NF-κB signaling pathway in human lung epithelial cells. In this study, we further investigated the roles of Rac1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt in thrombin-induced NF-κB activation and IL-8/CXCL8 expression. Thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 release and IL-8/CXCL8-luciferase activity were attenuated by a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), an Akt inhibitor (1-L-6-hydroxymethyl-chiro-inositol-2-((R)-2-O-methyl-3-O- octadecylcarbonate)), and the dominant negative mutants of Rac1 (RacN17) and Akt (AktDN). Treatment of cells with thrombin caused activation of Rac and Akt. The thrombin-induced increase in Akt activation was inhibited by RacN17 and LY294002. Stimulation of cells with thrombin resulted in increases in IKKα/β activation and κB-luciferase activity; these effects were inhibited by RacN17, LY294002, an Akt inhibitor, and AktDN. Treatment of cells with thrombin induced Gβγ, p85α, and Rac1 complex formation in a time-dependent manner. These results imply that thrombin activates the Rac1/PI3K/Akt pathway through formation of the Gβγ, Rac1, and p85α complex to induce IKKα/β activation, NF-κB transactivation, and IL-8/CXCL8 expression in human lung epithelial cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas