The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal injury in the liver after a minimally invasive electrosurgery with a titanium dioxide (TiO2), a chromium nitride (CrN) and a diamondlike carbon (DLC) surface modifications. Three-dimensional (3-D) liver models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance imaging to simulate the electrosurgical procedure. Several reports have investigated 3D finite element models for electrosurgical devices, but few have examined a model for devices with treated layers. Data indicated that the temperature decreased significantly when minimally electrosurgery with nanostructured TiO2, CrN and DLC thin films were used. Moreover, DLC electrosurgery created a relatively small thermal injury area and decreased 12.93% temperature compared with control groups. The present study reveals that the novel nanostructured thin film on electrode substrates is an effective means of improving the performance of reducing excessive thermal injury and uniformly distributing temperature in the liver.
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