Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the major increasing lethal malignancies of the gynecological tract, mostly due to delayed diagnosis and chemoresistance, as well as its very heterogeneous genetic makeup. Application of high-throughput molecular technologies, gene expression microarrays, and powerful preclinical models has provided a deeper understanding of the molecular characteristics of EOC. Therefore, molecular markers have become a potent tool in EOC management, including prediction of aggressiveness, prognosis, and recurrence, and identification of novel therapeutic targets. In addition, biomarkers derived from genomic/epigenomic alterations (e.g., gene mutations, copy number aberrations, and DNA methylation) enable targeted treatment of affected signaling pathways in advanced EOC, thereby improving the effectiveness of traditional treatments. This review outlines the molecular landscape and discusses the impacts of biomarkers on the detection, diagnosis, surveillance, and therapeutic targets of EOC. These findings focus on the necessity to translate these potential biomarkers into clinical practice.
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