Coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) constitute two of the leading causes of death in Europe, USA and the rest of the world. According to the latest reports of the Iranian National Health Ministry, CAD is the main cause of death in Iranian patients with an age over 35 years despite a significant reduction in mortality due to early interventional treatments in the context of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Inflammation plays a fundamental role in coronary atherogenesis, atherosclerotic plaque formation, acute coronary thrombosis and CAD establishment. Chemokines are well-recognized mediators of inflammation involved in several bio-functions such as leucocyte migration in response to inflammatory signals and oxidative vascular injury. Different chemokines serve as chemo-attractants for a wide variety of cell types including immune cells. CXC motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), also known as interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXLC10), is a chemokine with inflammatory features whereas CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) serves as a shared receptor for CXCL9, 10 and 11. These chemokines mediate immune responses through the activation and recruitment of leukocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. CXCL10, interleukin (IL-15) and interferon (IFN-g) are increased after a COVID-19 vaccination with a BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine and are enriched by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 after the second vaccination. The aim of the present study is the presentation of the elucidation of the crucial role of CXCL10 in the patho-physiology and pathogenesis of CAD and in identifying markers associated with the vaccination resulting in antibody development.
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