The influence of uremic toxins on low bone turnover disease in chronic kidney disease

Giou-Teng Yiang, Wen-Lin Su, Cai-Mei Zheng, Min-Tser Liao, Tong-Hong Cheng, Chien-Lin Lu, Kuo-Cheng Lu

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻回顧型文獻同行評審


Uremic toxins play a crucial role in the development of low bone turnover disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) through the induction of oxidative stress. This oxidative stress disrupts the delicate balance between bone formation and resorption, resulting in a decline in both bone quantity and quality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate nuclear factor kappa-B and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, promoting osteoclastogenesis. Conversely, ROS hinder osteoblast differentiation by facilitating the binding of Forkhead box O proteins (FoxOs) to β-catenin, triggering apoptosis through FoxOs-activating kinase phosphorylation. This results in increased osteoblastic receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression and decreased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 levels, compromising antioxidant defenses against oxidative damage. As CKD progresses, the accumulation of protein-bound uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) intensifies oxidative stress, primarily affecting osteoblasts. IS and PCS directly inhibit osteoblast viability, induce apoptosis, decrease alkaline phosphatase activity, and impair collagen 1 and osteonectin, impeding bone formation. They also reduce cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) production and lower parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor expression in osteoblasts, resulting in PTH hyporesponsiveness. In summary, excessive production of ROS by uremic toxins not only reduces the number and function of osteoblasts but also induces PTH hyporesponsiveness, contributing to the initiation and progression of low bone turnover disease in CKD.
頁(從 - 到)38-45
期刊Tzu Chi Medical Journal
出版狀態已發佈 - 2024


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