This retrospective study aimed to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the risks of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and post-liver transplantation (post-LT) mortality. Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database, Taiwan, 3,489 patients who received a LT between 1 January 2005, and 31 December 2015, were enrolled in this study and divided into the pre-existing DM, post-LT DM (PLTDM), and without DM groups. All subjects were followed up from 1 year after LT to the index date for ESKD, and the occurrence of death, or until 31 December 2016. Of the 3,489 patients with LT, 1,016 had pre-existing DM, 215 had PLTDM, and 2,258 had no DM pre- or post-LT. The adjusted HRs of ESKD were 1.77 (95% Confidence Interval [CI],.78–3.99) and 2.61 (95% CI, 1.63–4.18) for PLTDM group and pre-existing DM group compared to without DM group, respectively. For the risk of death, the adjusted HRs were 1.05 (95% CI,.72–1.55) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.04–1.59) for PLTDM group and pre-existing DM group compared to those without DM group, respectively. The sensitivity analysis for the risk of ESKD and death also revealed the consistent result. Pre-existing DM has significant increase the risk of post-LT ESKD and mortality. The role of PLTDM should be explored to explain postoperative morbidity and mortality.
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