Thiamine, named as vitamin B1, is an important cofactor for the critical enzymes regarding to glucose metabolism, like transketolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD) is a derivative of thiamine with higher bioavailability and solubility than thiamine and has been widely applied to health maintenance and disease therapy. Higher physical activities are associated with higher thiamine supplements for efficient energy metabolism. Furthermore, the effective dose of TTFD, beneficial to exercise physiological adaption and performance, still be further validated and the safety evaluation were also an important issue to be considered for potential application. ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) strain mice were allocated as 0, 50, 100, and 500 mg/kg dose groups and administrated by oral gavage consecutively for 6 weeks. Physical activities including grip strength and aerobic endurance were measured. Various fatigue-associated biochemical variables such as lactate, glucose, blood urine nitrogen (BUN) or creatine kinase (CK), were also assessed. The levels of liver and muscle glycogen were measured as an indicator of energy storage at the end of the experiment. Toxicity assessments for long-term supplementation were also further evaluated for safety consideration. TTFD supplementation significantly increased the endurance and grip strength and demonstrated beneficial effects on lactate production and clearance rate after an acute exercise challenge. The TTFD supplementation significantly mitigated the BUN and CK indexes after extended exercise and elevated the glycogen content in the liver and muscle tissues. According to body composition, biochemical and histopathological data, daily administration of TTFD for over 6 weeks (subacute toxicity) also demonstrated reasonable safety results for long-term and adequate supplementation. The toxicity of TTFD were also considered as safety for long-term supplementation with indicated doses. Furthermore, the TTDF could be applied to not only the health promotion but also improvement of exercise physiological adaption and the TTFD could be further considered as potential ergogenic aids combined with different nutrient strategy.
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