While diet and lifestyle are independently implicated in the etiology of liver disease, the interaction of diet and lifestyle may be more helpful for determining the risk of liver abnormality. Thus, our study aimed to evaluate the interaction between the dietary pattern associated with liver biomarkers and lifestyle factors among Taiwanese adults with abnormal liver enzymes. A liver-associated dietary pattern, generated using reduced rank regression, was characterized by high intake of soy sauce or other dips, sugar sweetened beverages, and preserved and processed foods, but low intake of seafood, fruits, eggs, and dark-colored vegetables. In the fully adjusted model, liver-associated dietary patterns or unhealthy concordance lifestyle factors were associated with an increased risk of having liver function abnormality (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.12 and OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.53, respectively). Moreover, the interaction between liver-associated dietary pattern and unhealthy concordance lifestyle factors showed more significant correlation, with an elevated risk of abnormal liver function (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 2.02, 2.26). Therefore, our study suggests that participants who have a strong liver-associated dietary pattern along with unhealthy concordance lifestyles are likely to have increased odds of abnormal liver function.
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