The aquatic Araceae species Lemna minor was earlier shown to have xyloglucans with a different structure from the fucogalactoxyloglucans of other non-commelinid monocotyledons. We investigated 26 Araceae species (including L. minor), from five of the seven subfamilies. All seven aquatic species examined had xyloglucans that were unusual in having one or two of three features: 14% oligosaccharide units with S or D side chains [Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctata (Lemnoideae) and Pistia stratiotes (Aroideae, Dracunculus clade)]. Orontioideae and Lemnoideae are the two most basal subfamilies, with all species being aquatic, and Aroideae is the most derived. Two terrestrial species [Dieffenbachia seguine and Spathicarpa hastifolia (Aroideae, Zantedeschia clade)] also had xyloglucans without fucose indicating this feature was not unique to aquatic species.