Purpose: Whether preexisting sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for cancer incidence remains unclear. Therefore, we performed this propensity score (PS)-matched (PSM) population-based cohort study to compare the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of specific cancers between patients with and without sarcopenia. Patients and Methods: The patients were categorized into two groups according to the presence or absence of sarcopenia, matched at a 4:1 ratio. Results: PS matching yielded a final cohort of 77,608 patients (15,527 in the sarcopenia and 62,081 nonsarcopenia groups) eligible for further analysis. In our multivariate Cox regression analysis, compared with the nonsarcopenia group, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR; 95% confidence interval (CI)) for cancer risk in the sarcopenia group was 1.277 (1.10 to 1.36; p < 0.001). Furthermore, the adjusted IRRs (95% CIs) for sarcopenia patients were pancreatic cancer 3.77 (1.79 to 4.01), esophageal cancer 3.38 (1.87 to 4.11), lung cancer 2.66 (1.15 to 2.90), gastric cancer 2.25 (1.54 to 3.23), head and neck cancer 2.15 (1.44 to 2.53), colorectal cancer 2.04 (1.77 to 2.30), hepatocellular carcinoma 1.84 (1.30 to 2.36), breast cancer 1.56 (1.12 to 1.95), and ovarian cancer 1.43 (1.10 to 2.29), respectively. Conclusions: Sarcopenia might be a significant cancer risk factor for lung, colorectal, breast, head and neck, pancreas, gastric, esophageal, and ovarian cancer, as well as hepatocellular carcinoma.
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