Safety of Special Waveform of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TES): In Vivo Assessment

Muhammad Adeel, Chun Ching Chen, Bor Shing Lin, Hung Chou Chen, Jian Chiun Liou, Yu Ting Li, Chih Wei Peng

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻文章同行評審

5 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Intermittent theta burst (iTBS) powered by direct current stimulation (DCS) can safely be applied transcranially to induce neuroplasticity in the human and animal brain cortex. tDCS-iTBS is a special waveform that is used by very few studies, and its safety needs to be confirmed. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the safety of tDCS-iTBS in an animal model after brain stimulations for 1 h and 4 weeks. Thirty-one Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: (1) short-term stimulation for 1 h/session (sham, low, and high) and (2) long-term for 30 min, 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks (sham and high). The anodal stimulation applied over the primary motor cortex ranged from 2.5 to 4.5 mA/cm2. The brain biomarkers and scalp tissues were assessed using ELISA and histological analysis (H&E staining) after stimulations. The caspase-3 activity, cortical myelin basic protein (MBP) expression, and cortical interleukin (IL-6) levels increased slightly in both groups compared to sham. The serum MBP, cortical neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and serum IL-6 slightly changed from sham after stimulations. There was no obvious edema or cell necrosis seen in cortical histology after the intervention. The short-and long-term stimulations did not induce significant adverse effects on brain and scalp tissues upon assessing biomarkers and conducting histological analysis.
期刊International journal of molecular sciences
出版狀態已發佈 - 6月 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 催化
  • 分子生物學
  • 光譜
  • 電腦科學應用
  • 物理與理論化學
  • 有機化學
  • 無機化學


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