Aims: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major healthcare challenge. We developed and internally and externally validated a risk prediction model of DN by integrating clinical factors and SNPs from genes of multiple CKD-related pathways in the Han Chinese population. Materials and methods: A total of 1526 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated into derivation (n = 1019) or validation (n = 507) sets. External validation was performed with 3899 participants from the Taiwan Biobank. We selected 66 SNPs identified from literature review for building our weighted genetic risk score (wGRS). The steps for prediction model development integrating clinical and genetic information were based on the Framingham Heart Study. Results: The AUROC (95% CI) for this DN prediction model with combined clinical factors and wGRS was 0.81 (0.78, 0.84) in the derivation set. Furthermore, by directly using the information of these 66 SNPs, our final prediction model had AUROC values of 0.85 (0.82, 0.87), 0.89 (0.86, 0.91), and 0.77 (0.74, 0.80) in the derivation, internal validation, and external validation sets, respectively. Under the combined model, the results with a cutoff point of 30% showed 70.91% sensitivity, 67.84% specificity, 51.54% positive predictive value, and 82.86% negative predictive value. Conclusions: We developed and internally and externally validated a model with clinical factors and SNPs from genes of multiple CKD-related pathways to predict DN in Taiwan. This model can be used in clinical risk management practice as a screening tool to identify persons who are genetically predisposed to DN for early intervention and prevention.
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