Summary: Using national insurance claims data of Taiwan, we found that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) had increased risk of fracture during the follow-up period of 2000–2013. History of PAD was also associated with adverse outcomes in hospitalized fracture patients. Prevention strategies were needed in this susceptible population. Introduction: Limited information was available on the association between PAD and fracture. The purpose of this study is to evaluate fracture risk and post-fracture outcomes in patients with PAD. Methods: We identified 6647 adults aged ≥ 20 years with newly diagnosed PAD using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 2000–2004. Comparison cohort consisted of 26,588 adults without PAD randomly selected with frequency matching in age and sex. Events of fracture were identified during the follow-up period from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013, to evaluate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of fracture associated with PAD. Another nested cohort study of 799,463 hospitalized fracture patients analyzed adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of adverse events after fracture among patients with and without PAD in 2004–2013. Results: Incidences of fracture in people with and without PAD were 22.1 and 15.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively (P < .0001). Compared with control, the adjusted HR of fracture was 1.59 (95% CI, 1.48–1.69) for PAD patients. In the nested cohort study, patients with PAD had higher post-fracture mortality (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09–1.25) and various complications. PAD patients also had comparatively higher medical expenditure (2691 vs. 2232 USD, P < .0001) and longer hospital stay (10.6 vs. 9.0 days, P < 0.0001) during fracture admission. Conclusions: Increased risk of fracture and post-fracture adverse outcomes were associated with PAD. This susceptible population needs care to prevent fracture and to minimize adverse outcomes after it occurs.
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