Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) play a role in joint synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some evidence indicates that particulate matter (PM) in air pollution could contribute to the progression of RA. However, more research is needed to clarify this relationship. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are implicated in various inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found mainly in grapes and red wine, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we demonstrated that resveratrol reduced PM-induced COX-2/PGE2 expression in human FLSs, and attenuated PM-enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and ROS generation. In addition, PM induced Akt, ERK1/2, or p38 MAPK activation, which was inhibited by resveratrol. Finally, we demonstrated that PM enhanced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and the NF-κB promoter activity, which were reduced by pretreatment with a ROS inhibitor or resveratrol. Thus, we concluded that resveratrol functions as a suppressor of PM-induced inflammatory signaling pathways by inhibiting COX-2/PGE2 expression.
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