Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a potential re-irradiation treatment for recurrent intracranial ependymoma after prior radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of repeated SRS in the treatment of recurrent intracranial ependymomas. Methods: This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients with residual or recurrent intracranial ependymomas who were treated with SRS between 1993 and 2018. Tumor progression was defined as a ≥ 10% increase in tumor volume. Tumor regression was defined as a ≥ 10% reduction in tumor volume. A tumor that remained within 10% of its original volume was defined as stable. Tumor control comprised tumor regression and stability. Time-dependent analyses were performed using two treatment failure endpoint definitions: (1) evidence of local tumor progression or distant metastasis (single SRS analysis), and (2) lack of tumor response to SRS (repeated SRS analysis). These analyses were adjusted for the competing risk of death. Results: The study comprised 37 patients (65 intracranial ependymomas) who underwent multiple SRS sessions (range: 1–7). Median age was 10.2 years (range: 0.8–53.8 years), and median tumor volume was 1.5 mL (range: 0.01–22.5 mL). The median radiation dose was 13.3 Gy (range: 7.9–22.0 Gy) at a median isodose line of 57% (range: 50–90%). Overall tumor control rates in the single SRS analysis adjusting for the competing risk of death were 53.6%, 30.5%, and 23.6% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Overall tumor control rates in the repeated SRS analysis adjusting for the competing risk of death were 70.6%, 50.4%, and 43.1% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Prior gross total resection was the only independent predictor of overall tumor control after SRS (aHR = 25.62 (1.55–422.1), p = 0.02). Conclusions: Repeated GKRS appeared to be an effective treatment strategy for recurrent or residual intracranial ependymomas, with acceptable complication rates.
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