STUDY DESIGN. A retrospective study to detect patients with new-onset compression fractures following vertebroplasty. OBJECTIVE. To investigate the characteristics and associated risk factors of new-onset vertebral compression fractures after vertebroplasty. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a well-established technique for treating osteoporotic compression fractures. Short-term results are promising, but longer-term studies have suggested a possible accelerated failure rate in the adjacent vertebral body. METHODS. We retrospectively reviewed patients with osteoporotic compression fractures from January 2000 to June 2006. The patients received percutaneous vertebroplasty with bone cement augmentation. Long-term follow-up radiographically identified the occurrence of vertebral fracture (minimum follow-up 24 months) after an initial vertebral fracture. RESULTS. In 852 patients (1131 vertebrae), 58.8% to 63.8% of new compression fractures after vertebroplasty were adjacent compression fractures. Adjacent fractures occurred much sooner than nonadjacent fractures; (71.9 ± 71.8 days vs. 286.8 ± 232.8 days, P <0.001). In patients who experienced vertebral compression fractures 2 or more times, older age, lower baseline bone mineral density (BMD), and more pre-existing vertebral compression fractures were demonstrated in this study (P <0.005). The gender and amount of cemented polymethyl methacrylate were not statistically different between Groups A (1 vertebral compression fracture) and B (vertebral compression fracture ≥2 times). CONCLUSION. New-onset vertebral compression fractures occurred repeatedly within a few years after vertebroplasty. New-onset adjacent-level fractures occurred sooner and were more predominate than nonadjacent level fractures. The results of this study suggest that older patient age, lower baseline BMD, and more pre-existing vertebral fractures were found to be risk factors for multiple vertebral compression fractures.
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