Globally, anemia affects 56 million pregnant women, especially women with a low household income. Functional erythropoiesis requires a constant supply of micronutrients, and the demands significantly increase during fetal development. This study aims to identify dietary patterns for preventing gestational erythropoiesis-associated micronutrient deficiencies (e.g., iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12). A Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Pregnant Women, Taiwan (NAHSIT-PW), was conducted between 2017 and 2019. Data on baseline information, diet, anthropometrics, and blood biochemistry were collected during a prenatal visit. Dietary patterns were identified using a reduced rank regression (RRR). Erythropoiesis-related micronutrient deficiencies were defined as single, double, and triple micronutrient deficiencies of an iron deficiency, folate depletion, and a vitamin B12 deficiency. In total, 1437 singleton pregnancies aged ≥20–48 years were included in the analysis. Prevalences of normal nutrition, and single, double, and triple erythropoiesis-related micronutrient deficiencies were 35.7%, 38.2%, 18.6%, and 7.5%, respectively. Anemic pregnant women with a low household income had the highest prevalence rates of double (32.5%) and triple (15.8%) erythropoiesis-related micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary pattern scores were positively correlated with nuts and seeds, fresh fruits, total vegetables, breakfast cereals/oats and related products, soybean products, and dairy products but negatively correlated with processed meat products and liver, organs, and blood products. After adjusting for covariates, the dietary pattern had 29% (odds ratio (OR): 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.055–0.091, p = 0.006)) and 43% (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.41–0.80, p = 0.001)) reduced odds of having double and triple erythropoiesis-related micronutrient deficiencies for those pregnant women with a low household income. For those women with anemia, dietary patterns had 54% (OR: 046, 95% CI: 0.27–0.78) and 67% (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.170.64) reduced odds of double and triple erythropoiesis-related micronutrient deficiencies. In conclusion, increased consumption of breakfast cereals and oats, nuts, and seeds, fresh fruits and vegetables, soybean products, and dairy products may protect women against erythropoiesis-related micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy.
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