Induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression, nitric oxide (NO) production and migration of RAW264.7 macrophages by coculture with breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells or the addition of conditioned medium derived from MDA-MB-231 cells (MDA-CM) was identified. Increased iNOS/NO induction and migration of macrophages byMDA-CM were significantly blocked by adding the c-Jun-N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY117082 and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid and a dominant-negative JNK. The addition of an NO donor, Diethylenetriamine-NONOate, significantly activated expressions of MMP-9 and VEGF-A genes in breast carcinoma MDA-MD-231 cells and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells in coculture with RAW264.7 macrophages as determined using Transwell systems, but that was inhibited by adding SP600125, BAY117082 and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages reduced MDACM-induced iNOS/NO, JNK and NF-κB activations in accordance with inhibiting VEGF-A and MMP-9 gene expressions by MDA-MB-231 cells via Transwell assays. Furthermore, VEGF, sRANKL, TNF-α, IL-1α, TGF-β, CSF-1 andMCP-1 were applied, and CSF-1 showed the most potent stimulation of iNOS/NO production and migration of macrophages. MCF-7 cells with lower CSF-1 expression than MDA-MB-231 cells showed a poor stimulatory effect on iNOS/NO production and migration of macrophages. Neutralization of CSF-1 in MDA-CM using CSF-1 antibody inhibited MDA-CM-induced iNOS protein expression and migration of macrophages, and CSF-1-induced iNOS protein and migration was blocked by adding JNK inhibitor SP and NF-κB inhibitor BAY. The reciprocal activation of breast cancer and macrophages via NO-CSF-1 is first elucidated herein.
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