Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the vital phospho-ester bond cleaving biocatalysts that has inevitable significance in cellular systems, viz., early-stage osteoblast differentiation, cell integrity in tissues, bone mineralization, cancer biomarker, liver dysfunction, cellular osmotic pressure, protein folding and many more. Variation from optimal levels of ALP in intra and extracellular fluids can cause severe diseases, including death. Due to these reasons, ALP is considered as a vital biomarker for various preclinical and medical diagnosis. Fluorescence image-based diagnosis is the most widely used method, owing to its simplicity, robustness, non-invasive properties and excellent spatio-temporal resolution (up to the nM/pM level), as compared to conventional analytical techniques, such as the electroanalytical method, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Most of the reviews reported for ALP’s recognition in the literature scarcely explain the structurally related, photophysical and biophysical parameters; and the sub-cellular localizations. Considering these facts, in order to enhance the opto-analytical parameters of fluorescence-based diagnostic materials at the cellular level, herein we have systematically documented recent developments in the opto-analytical capabilities of quencher-free probes for ALP, used in in vitro (biological buffers) to in cellulo conditions, along with in vivo models.
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