Background: Dialysis for end stage renal disease is considered a major public health challenge. Pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) may be independent risk factors for contrast-induced acute kidney injury. The aim of this study is to investigate dialysis risk in patients with CKD and CHF after radio-contrast medium exposure or coronary catheterization. Method: This case-crossover design used the Health Insurance Database to identify incident dialysis patients with CKD and CHF. Patients themselves in 6 months ago serve as their own controls. This prevents selection bias in the control group, such as healthy volunteer bias and confounding bias. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of dialysis shortly after radio-contrast medium exposure. Results: In total, 36,709 patients with CKD and CHF underwent dialysis after radio-contrast medium exposure. At 1 week, the odds ratio (OR) for dialysis was 4.49 (95% Confidence Interval: 3.99–5.05). The ORs for acute-temporary (N = 23,418) and chronic dialysis (N = 13,291) were 5.57 (4.83–6.42) and 2.37 (1.90–2.95) after radio-contrast medium exposure, respectively. The ORs for dialysis after radio-contrast medium exposure in advanced CKD patients (N = 12,030) were 3.25 (2.53–4.19) and 4.85 (4.24–5.54) in early CKD patients (N = 24,679). The ORs for dialysis after coronary catheterization in patients with CKD and CHF was 3.75 (2.57–5.48). Conclusions: In this study, the clinical risk for acute-temporary or chronic dialysis was significantly high when the bias was fully considered. We need strategies to reduce the subsequent risk of dialysis after radio-contrast medium exposure, especially in patients with CKD and CHF.
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