Hypoglycemia has been known as a potential contributory factor to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. There may be shared pathogenic mechanisms underlying both conditions, and the ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), as an alternative substrate for glucose may exert neuroprotection against hypoglycemia-induced injury. To investigate this, Neuro-2a cells were subjected to a 24 h period of glucose deprivation with or without the presence of BHB. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis, autophagy, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) levels were evaluated. The results show that Neuro-2a cells deprived of glucose displayed a significant loss of cell survival with a corresponding decrease in ATP levels, suggesting that glucose deprivation was neurotoxic. This effect was likely attributed to the diverse mechanisms including raised ROS, defective autophagic flux and reduced basal Aβ levels (particularly monomeric Aβ). The presence of BHB could partially protect against the loss of cell survival induced by glucose deprivation. The mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of BHB might be mediated, at least in part, through restoring ATP, and modulating ROS production, autophagy flux efficacy and the monomeric Aβ level. Results imply that a possible link between the basal monomeric Aβ and glucose deprivation neurotoxicity, and treatments designed for the prevention of energy impairment, such as BHB, may be beneficial for rescuing surviving cells in relation to neurodegeneration.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- 生物化學、遺傳與分子生物學 (全部)