Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with malignancy, including colorectal cancer, via the potential mechanism of chronic inflammation status. This study aimed to determine whether influenza vaccines can reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with CKD. Our cohort study enrolled 12,985 patients older than 55 years with a diagnosis of CKD in Taiwan from the National Health Insurance Research Database at any time from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2012. Patients enrolled in the study were divided into a vaccinated and an unvaccinated group. In this study, 7490 and 5495 patients were unvaccinated and vaccinated, respectively. A propensity score was utilized to reduce bias and adjust the results. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the correlation between the influenza vaccine and colorectal cancer in patients with CKD. The results showed that the influenza vaccine exerted a protective effect against colorectal cancer in populations with CKD. The incidence rate of colon cancer in the vaccinated group was significantly lower than in the unvaccinated group, with an adjusted hazard rate (HR) of 0.38 (95% CI: 0.30–0.48, p < 0.05). After the propensity score was adjusted for Charlson comorbidity index, age, sex, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, monthly income, and level of urbanization, the dose-dependent effect was found, and it revealed adjusted HRs of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54–1.00, p < 0.05), 0.41 (95% CI: 0.30–0.57, p < 0.001), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.11–0.25, p < 0.001) for one, two to three, and four or more vaccinations, respectively. In summary, the influenza vaccine was found to be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in CKD patients. This study highlights the potential chemopreventive effect of influenza vaccination among patients with CKD. Future studies are required to determine whether the aforementioned relationship is a causal one.
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