Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a decalcified allo/xenograft retaining collagen and noncollagenous proteins, which has been extensively used because of its osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CS) is a synthetic bone substitute used in bone healing with biocompatible, nontoxic, bioabsorbable, osteoconductive, and good mechanical characteristics. This study aims to prepare a DBM/CS composite bone graft material in a moldable putty form without compromising the peculiar properties of DBM and CS. For this purpose, firstly, porcine femur was defatted using chloroform/methanol and extracted by acid for demineralization, then freeze-dried and milled/sieved to obtain DBM powder. Secondly, the α-form and β-form of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO4 0.5H2O, CSH) were produced by heating gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O). The morphology and particle sizes of α- and β-CSH were obtained by SEM, and their chemical properties were confirmed by EDS, FTIR and XRD. Furthermore, the DBM-based graft was mixed with α-or β-CSH at a ratio of 9:1, and glycerol/4% HPMC was added as a carrier to produce a putty. DBM/CSH putty possesses a low washout rate, good mechanical strength and biocompatibility. In conclusion, we believe that the moldable DBM/CSH composite putty developed in this study could be a promising substitute for the currently available bone grafts, and might have practical application in the orthopedics field as a potential bone void filler.
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