Mutations in the gene encoding Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 group 6 (PLA2G6) cause the recessive familial type 14 of Parkinson's disease (PARK14). Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). PLA2G6 is believed to be required for maintaining mitochondrial function. In the present study, rotenone-induced cellular model of PD was used to investigate possible molecular pathogenic mechanism of PARK14 mutant PLA2G6-induced PD. Overexpression of wild-type (WT) PLA2G6 ameliorated rotenone-induced apoptotic death of SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells. PARK14 mutant (D331Y), (G517C), (T572I), (R632W), (N659S) or (R741Q) PLA2G6 failed to prevent rotenone-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and exert a neuroprotective effect. WT PLA2G6, but not PARK14 mutant PLA2G6, prevented rotenone-induced mitophagy impairment. In contrast to WT PLA2G6, PARK14 mutant PLA2G6 was ineffective in attenuating rotenone-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the level of mitochondrial superoxide. WT PLA2G6, but not PARK14 PLA2G6 mutants, restored enzyme activity of mitochondrial complex I and cellular ATP content in rotenone-treated SH-SY5Y dopaminergic cells. In contrast to WT PLA2G6, PARK14 mutant PLA2G6 failed to prevent rotenone-induced mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and cytochrome c release. These results suggest that PARK14 PLA2G6 mutants lose their ability to maintain mitochondrial function and are defective inpreventing mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in rotenone-induced cellular model of PD.
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