Objective: The beneficial effect of influenza vaccination (IV) in patients with diabetes was not completely understood. Methods: Using the research data of health insurance, we performed a cohort study of patients aged ≥20 years who were admitted to inpatient care due to diabetes in 2008–2013 in Taiwan. We performed the propensity score matching and the outcomes of complications and mortality following the diabetes admission was compared between patients with and without IV. Results: Among 61,002 patients with diabetes admission, IV reduced 30-day in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66–0.84), particularly among patients with prior diabetes hospitalization, inadequate control for diabetes, and diabetes-related comorbidities, such as eye involvement, ketoacidosis, renal manifestations, and coma. Compared with non-IV control group, patients with IV also had decreased risks of pneumonia (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87–0.97), septicemia (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.79–0.88), urinary tract infection (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.97), and intensive care (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.27–0.31). Conclusion: In patients with diabetes admission, IV was associated with reduced risks of complications and mortality. Our study implicated the urgent need to promote influenza vaccination for this susceptible population with diabetes.
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