Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) rarely occurs in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A 36-year-old Asian female was diagnosed with MDS (refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, RCMD) and complicated by AIHA 7 months later. Secondary myelofibrosis developed at the same time. Steroid therapy was ineffective and cyclosporin A (CsA) was discontinued due to its neurotoxicity with the development of leukoencephalopathy. However, the patient achieved a good hematological response after the use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, CellCept) with a dose of 1 g/day and prednisolone (15 mg/day). Prednisolone was tapered off over the next 3 weeks. The patient did not require any blood support 4 weeks after the use of MMF and has been hematologically stable for 4 months. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using MMF in treating MDS complicated by AIHA. MMF might be considered as a salvage therapy for patients with refractory anemia complicated by AIHA.
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