Long term success of metallic fusion cages depends on mechanobiological processes through the bone incorporation and rich osseointegration. An optimal configuration of porous titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti–6Al–4V) implant fabricated via the additive manufacturing was evaluated in complimentary structure examinations to investigate the growth of autologous osseous at multi-length scales. X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) using newly-built analysis method indicate the porous Ti–6Al–4V is much better for bone ingrowth compared to commercially non-porous titanium (Ti) and porous tantalum (Ta) implants at the ultramicrostructural level. The evolution of bone formation and remodeling acquired by nano X-ray Laue diffraction mapping exhibits the isotropic orientation and low crystallinity of all newly formed bone whereas mature bone in Ti–6Al–4V discloses the preferential alignment and higher crystallinity volumes of constituent hydroxyapatite (HA) crystallites. The high degree in mineral crystallinity of the fully mature bone suggests additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V pores enhance the collagen-regulated mineralization.
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