It is vital to remove residual tumor cells after resection to avoid the recurrence and metastasis of osteosarcoma. In this study, a mineral nanomedicine, europium-doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Eu) nanoparticles (NPs), is developed to enhance the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy (i.e., surgical resection followed by radiotherapy) for tumor cell growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma. In vitro studies show that CaF2:Eu NPs (200 μg/mL) exert osteosarcoma cell (143B)-selective toxicity and migration-inhibiting effects at a Eu dopant amount of 2.95 atomic weight percentage. These effects are further enhanced under X-ray irradiation (6 MeV, 4 Gy). Furthermore, in vivo tests show that intraosseous injection of CaF2:Eu NPs and X-ray irradiation have satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in controlling primary tumor size and inhibiting primary tumor metastasis. Overall, our results suggest that CaF2:Eu NPs with their osteosarcoma cell (143B)-selective toxicity and migration-inhibiting effects combined with radiotherapy might be nanomedicines for treating osteosarcoma after tumor resection.
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