Background Maxacalcitol was approved in Taiwan in 2018 as the first active vitamin D3 injection for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. However, no data from any clinical study with maxacalcitol in Taiwanese patients is available. Objectives This analysis aimed to evaluate the profiles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium (Ca) concentrations in Taiwanese SHPT patients on hemodialysis and maxacalcitol. Methods We developed population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models using a modeling and simulation approach. The data for these analyses were obtained from two studies: a clinical pharmacology study in Japanese patients and an ethnic comparison study in healthy Japanese and -Taiwanese volunteers. We then conducted a simulation study with a PK-PD model comprising the PK and PD models developed here. Results Serum maxacalcitol concentration profile was modeled using a two-compartment model that took into consideration the distribution of concentrations below the lower limit of quantification. An ethnic difference in clearance was included in the PK model as a covariate. A PD model that used a PTH/Ca feedback loop best described the observed data. There were no significant differences in Ca or PTH concentrations between Taiwanese and Japanese based on the simulation results from our PK-PD model, even though maxacalcitol exposure was approximately 40% higher in Taiwanese than in Japanese. Conclusions On the basis of these population PK and PD analyses and the clinical study conducted in Japan, there is no clinically relevant difference between Taiwanese and Japanese in terms of serum Ca or PTH levels.
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