Purpose: This study was aimed at investigating the diagnostic value of maternal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) in the recognition of chorioamnionitis in patients undergoing fetal reduction. Methods: Seventy-one gravidas with high-order multifetal pregnancies, including 46 with triplets, 18 with quadruplets, and 7 with quintuplets, who underwent transabdominal fetal reduction to twins during the 10th-14th gestational week were recruited. The subjects were followed up clinically and ultrasonographically 1 week and 1 month after fetal reduction for signs of infection, premature uterine contraction, and premature rupture of the membranes. CRP levels were measured prior to fetal reduction and at follow-up examinations, and were compared. Results: Among the 71 mothers, 65 (92%) were normal after fetal reduction. The CRP levels were not significantly different prior to the procedure (0.27 ± 0.26 mg/dL), and 1 week (0.23 ± 0.24 mg/dL) and 1 month (0.24 ± 0.20 mg/dL) later. There was no correlation between the number of fetuses reduced and the CRP levels. Six (8%) experienced leakage of amniotic fluid after fetal reduction. Three patients had normal CRP levels at that time and at the following tests. The pregnancies continued smoothly after conservative treatment. The other three patients had elevated CRP levels when leakage of amniotic fluid occurred. Fever and uterine irritability developed subsequently despite parenteral antibiotics and tocolytic therapy. Daily checks showed increasing CRP levels. The pregnancies were aborted, and the histology of the placental membranes revealed chorioamnionitis with infiltration of acute inflammatory cells. Conclusions: The absorption of inactive gestational tissue after fetal reduction did not affect CRP levels. CRP may be used as a marker of intrauterine infection after fetal reduction.
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