The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Taiwan and to compare the clinical courses of pediatric patients with macrolide-resistant (MR) M. pneumoniae and macrolide-susceptible (MS) M. pneumoniae infection. Patients were among the children admitted to Chang Gung Children's Hospital with mycoplasmal pneumonia between February and December 2011. Detection for macrolide resistance was performed after informed consent was obtained. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and compared the clinical courses of two groups of patients of 73 children enrolled into our study. The rate of macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae was 12.3 %. Longer hospital stay was observed in the MR patients than MS patients [median, 7 days vs. 5 days (P = 0.019)]. Clinical features or radiographic or laboratory findings are not helpful to differentiate MR from MS mycoplasmal pneumonia. Early diagnosis of MR mycoplasmal pneumonia is crucial for the best management of these patients and obviates the need for extensive etiological searches of these nonresponding cases.
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