Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a bariatric surgery that can effectively reduce weight and improve obesity-associated comorbidities. However, surgical stress intensifies inflammation and im-balanced metabolic profiles. Arginine (Arg) is a nutrient with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluated the short-term effects of Arg administration on adipocyte inflammation and metabolic alterations in obese mice after SG. Mice were assigned to normal and high-fat diet (HFD) groups. After 16 weeks, the HFD group were divided to sham (SH), SG with saline (SS), or Arg (SA) groups. SS and SA groups were postoperatively injected with saline or Arg via the tail vein and sacrificed at day 1 or 3 after the SG, respectively. Results showed that obesity caused elevated plasma glucose and leptin levels. The SG operation enhanced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissues, whereas hepatocyte gene expressions associated with lipid β-oxidation were downregulated. Arg treatment reversed the expressions of β-oxidation-associated genes and reduced lipid peroxide production in the liver. Ad-ditionally, adipose tissue expressions of inflammatory chemokines were reduced, while the M2 macrophage marker increased after surgery. The findings suggest that postoperative Arg administration elicited more balanced hepatic lipid metabolism, polarized macrophages toward the anti-inflammatory type, and attenuated adipocyte inflammation shortly after SG.
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