Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is not only a chronic urinary bladder pain syndrome but is also associated with multifactorial etiology. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that IC/BPS is associated with subsequent increased risks of outpatient visits and hospitalizations. Using nationwide database, the diagnoses were based on the International Classification Codes (ICD-9-CM) (595.1) of at least three outpatient services during 2002–2008, (n = 27,990) and cystoscopic finding Hunner type and/or glomerulation with pre-audit criteria. All recruited cases monitored for subsequent outpatient visits and hospitalizations for 2 years, including all-cause and specialty-specific departments, were classified according to medical specialty and age group (<40, 40–60, ≥60 years of age). IC/BPS patients have more overall outpatient department (OPD) visits and an overall adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.64. As for specialty, IRRs were higher in psychiatry (2.75), Chinese medicine (2.01), and emergency medicine (2.00), besides urology and gynecology. The IRRs decreased as age advanced (2.01, 1.71, and 1.44, respectively), except for gynecology (2.42, 2.52, and 2.81). A similar phenomenon happens in hospitalization with IRR of 1.69. Due to claim data characteristics, whether ulcer type IC/BPS findings can be deductive to non-ulcer type remains inclusive. Current results indicate the impacts of healthcare burden in broad spectrum about IC/PBS patients. IC/BPS has been suggested to be associated with lower threshold of healthcare visits and some coexisting disease and is comprised of systemic dysregulation, and is beyond the scope of local bladder-urethra disease. Adequate recognition of associated or comorbid factors and possible recommendation or referral for IC/BPS patients can help provide better healthcare quality.
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