Indigofera suffruticosa aerial parts extract induce G2/M arrest and ATR/CHK1 pathway in Jurkat cells

Hong Loan Tran, Kuei Hung Lai, Hsun Shuo Chang, Yi Siao Chen, Hui Chun Wang, Shuen Shin Yang, Hsueh Wei Chang, Chin Mu Hsu, Chia Hung Yen, Hui Hua Hsiao

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻文章同行評審


Background: Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. is used as a folk medicine for treating patients with leukemia, however very little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of its anti-leukemic activity and the chemical profile of the active extract. The present study aimed to reveal the molecular effect of I. suffruticosa aerial parts extract (ISAE) on leukemia cells and its chemical constituents. Methods: Cytotoxicity of ISAE were determined by resazurin viability assay, multitox – Glo multiplex cytotoxicity assay, and Annexin V staining assay. Cell cycle profiles were revealed by propidium iodide staining assay. The effects of ISAE on G2/M arrest signaling and DNA damage were evaluated by Western blot assay and phospho-H2A.X staining assay. The chemical profile of ISAE were determined by tandem mass spectroscopy and molecular networking approach. Results: We showed that the acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat cell was more responsive to ISAE treatment than other leukemia cell lines. In contrast, ISAE did not induce cytotoxic effects in normal fibroblast cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed that ISAE triggered G2/M arrest in Jurkat cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Elevation of annexin V-stained cells and caspase 3/7 activity suggested ISAE-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, ISAE alone could increase the phosphorylation of CDK1 at Y15 and activate the ATR/CHK1/Wee1/CDC25C signaling pathway. However, the addition of caffeine, a widely used ATR inhibitor to ISAE, reduced the phosphorylation of ATR, CHK1, and CDK1, as well as G2/M arrest in Jurkat cells. Moreover, increased phospho-H2A.X stained cells indicated the involvement of DNA damage in the anti-leukemic effect of ISAE. Finally, qualitative analysis using UPLC-tandem mass spectroscopy and molecular networking revealed that tryptanthrin was the most abundant organoheterocyclic metabolite in ISAE. At equivalent concentrations to ISAE, tryptanthrin induced G2/M arrest of Jurkat cells, which can be prevented by caffeine. Conclusions: ISAE causes G2/M arrest via activating ATR/CHK1/CDK1 pathway and tryptanthrin is one of the active components of ISAE. Our findings provide subtle support to the traditional use of I. suffruitcosa in leukemia management in folk medicine.
期刊BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies
出版狀態已發佈 - 12月 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 補充和替代醫學


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