Sarcopenia, the age-associated-fragility with loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, often coexists with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in older individuals. Derangement of muscle metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics is critical, particularly in high-energy-demand organs in patients with metabolic disorder. However, targeted therapies to halt or reverse the pathological progression of sarcopenia coexisting with T2D are unavailable. Studies have identified the pathological roles of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) in both T2D and sarcopenia. In addition to their proinflammatory properties, HDACs are known to modify muscle metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics in both the development of sarcopenia and pathogenesis of diabetes. Proper quality control of mitochondrial dynamics through protein degradation and the synthesis of new proteins may improve skeletal muscle function in sarcopenia. Class I HDAC inhibitors improve energy metabolism and modulate autophagy-related genes in skeletal muscle. However, class IIa HDAC4 plays a protective role in preserving skeletal muscle structure following long-term denervation, and selective inhibition of class IIa HDAC activity had no impact on oxidative metabolism of muscle mitochondria. These findings suggest the vital role of class I HDAC modulation in bioenergetics and mitochondria quality control, and may lead to a novel therapeutic strategy targeting sarcopenia that coexists with T2D. HDAC inhibitors have been approved for clinical applications, and interventions targeting on HDACs may be promising for the treatment of sarcopenia.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
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