The treatment of heroin addiction is a complex process involving changes in addictive behavior and brain functioning. The goal of this study was to explore the brain default mode network (DMN) functional connectivity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and decision-making performance based on the Cambridge gambling task in heroin-dependent individuals undergoing methadone treatment (MT, n = 11) and medication-free faith-based therapeutic community program (TC, n = 11). The DMN involved the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left inferior parietal lobe (IPLL), right inferior parietal lobe (IPLR), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) subregions for all participants inboth the MT and TC groups. Compared with MT, TC had an increased functional connectivity in IPLL-IPLR and IPLR-PCC and decreased functional connectivity in mPFC-IPLL and IPLL-PCC. Both groups exhibited no significant difference in the regional rs-fMRI metric [i.e., amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)]. In the analysis of the neural correlates for decision-making performance, risk adjustment was positively associated with ALFF in IPLL for all participants considering the group effects. The involvement of IPL in decision-making performance and treatment response among heroin-dependent patients warrants further investigation.
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