This study was to elucidate the surface characteristics and in vitro cell behaviors of biomedical titanium (Ti) with the biofunctional surface (nanostructured rutile-Ti dioxide (NanoR-TiO2) layer combined with amino-groups (NH2) and albumin). Biofunctional surface features were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Immunolabeling with nano-gold particles was used to reflect the expected specific binding of protein on the biofunctional surface. In vitro cell behaviors were evaluated by culturing with mouse pre-osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) at 37 °C in different periods. Analytical results indicated that the sandwich-like (NH2/NanoR-TiO2/Ti) layer was formed on the Ti surface after plasma oxidation and polymerization. Immunolabeling analysis results also proved that the albumin can be successfully bonded with NH2 on NanoR-TiO2 layer. Moreover, cell morphology observation revealed that the biofunctional surface could potentially facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Therefore, the biomedical Ti with the biofunctional surface is a promising biomaterial for dental implant applications.
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