Adenomyosis is linked to dysmenorrhea and infertility. The pathogenesis of adenomyosis remains unclear, and little is known of the genetic and epigenetic changes in the eutopic endometrium in adenomyosis, which may predispose patients to the invasion and migration of endometrial tissues into the myometrium. Transcriptome studies have identified genes related to various cell behaviors but no targets for therapeutic intervention. The epigenetics of the eutopic endometrium in adenomyosis have rarely been investigated. Endometrial tissue was obtained from premenopausal women with (n = 32) or without adenomyosis (n = 17) who underwent hysterectomy aged 34–57 years at a tertiary hospital. The methylome and transcriptome were assessed by using a Methylation 450 K BeadChip array and Affymetrix expression microarray. Protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. Differential methylation analysis revealed 53 lowly methylated genes and 176 highly methylated genes with consistent gene expression in adenomyosis, including three genes encoding potassium ion channels. High expression of KCNK9 in the eutopic and ectopic endometria in patients with adenomyosis but not in normal controls was observed. Hormone-free, antibody-based KCNK9 targeting is a potential therapeutic strategy for adenomyosis-related dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and infertility.
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