During recent 20 years, enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) has emerged as a major concern among pediatric infectious diseases, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The clinical manifestations of EV-A71 include uncomplicated hand, foot, and mouth disease, herpanina or febrile illness and central nervous system (CNS) involvement such as aseptic meningitis, myoclonic jerk, polio-like syndrome, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis and cardiopulmonary failure due to severe rhombencephalitis. In follow-up studies of patients with EV-A 71 CNS infection, some still have hypoventilation and need tracheostomy with ventilator support, some have dysphagia and need nasogastric tube or gastrostomy feeding, some have limb weakness/astrophy, cerebellar dysfunction, neurodevelopmental delay, lower cognition, or attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder. Long term sequelae may be related to greater severity of CNS involvement or neuron damage, hypoxia and younger age of onset.
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