Background: Piriformis syndrome (PS) is a painful musculoskeletal condition characterized by a deep gluteal pain that may radiate to the posterior thigh and leg. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of ozone and BTX to lidocaine injection in treating piriformis syndrome that was resistant to medication and/or physical therapy. Study design: Between November 2018 and August 2019, we involved eighty-four subjects diagnosed with piriformis syndrome in a double-blinded, prospective, randomized comparative study to receive an ultrasound-guided injection of lidocaine (control group), botulinum toxin A, or local ozone (28 patients each group) in the belly of the piriformis muscle. Pain condition evaluated by the visual analog score (VAS) was used as a primary outcome, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) as a secondary outcome, before, at one month, two months, three months, and six months following the injection. Results: The majority (58.3%) of patients were male, while (41.7%) were female. At one month, a highly significant decrease occurred in VAS and ODI in the lidocaine and ozone groups compared to the botulinum toxin group (p < 0.001). At six months, there was a highly significant decrease in VAS and ODI in the botulinum toxin group compared to the lidocaine and ozone groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Botulinum toxin may assist in the medium- and long-term management of piriformis syndrome, while lidocaine injection and ozone therapy may help short-term treatment in patients not responding to conservative treatment and physiotherapy.
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