Introduction: Aumolertinib (formerly almonertinib; HS-10296) is a novel third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with revealed activity against EGFR-sensitizing mutations and EGFR T790M mutation. Methods: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who developed an EGFR T790M mutation after progression on first- or second-generation EGFR TKI therapy were enrolled in this registrational phase 2 trial of aumolertinib at 110 mg orally once daily (NCT02981108). The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) by independent central review. Results: A total of 244 patients with EGFR T790M-positive NSCLC were enrolled. The ORR by independent central review was 68.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.6–74.6). The disease control rate was 93.4% (95% CI: 89.6–96.2). The median duration of response was 15.1 months (95% CI: 12.5–16.6). The median progression-free survival was 12.4 months (95% CI: 9.7–15.0). Among 23 patients with assessable central nervous system (CNS) metastases, the CNS-ORR and CNS-disease control rate were 60.9% (95% CI: 38.5–80.3) and 91.3% (95% CI: 72.0–98.9), respectively. The median CNS-duration of response was 12.5 months (95% CI: 5.6–not reached). Treatment-related adverse events of more than or equal to grade 3 occurred in 16.4% of the patients, with the most common being increased blood creatine phosphokinase level (7%) and increased alanine aminotransferase level (1.2%). The relative dose density of aumolertinib was 99.2% in this study. Conclusions: Aumolertinib is an effective and well-tolerated third-generation EGFR TKI for patients with EGFR T790M-positive advanced NSCLC after disease progression on first- and second-generation EGFR TKI therapy. On the basis of these findings, aumolertinib was approved in the People's Republic of China for patients positive for EGFR T790M NSCLC.