Atherosclerosis and associated pathologies, such as coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke, are still the leading cause of death in Western society. The impact of female sex hormones on cardiovascular diseases has been studied intensively with conflicting findings. The controversy is mainly due to the differences in groups sampling, animal models used, hormonal treatment regimens, and the data analyzed. In the present article, the results of in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials are under review.
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