Introduction: Few studies have investigated the associations of child development with air pollution, land-use type, and maternal mental health simultaneously. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of exposure to air pollutants during several critical periods of life, with adjustment for land-use type and maternal mental status, on child development at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in the Greater Taipei area. Methods: Participants were selected from an ongoing Taiwanese birth cohort study. We analyzed the data of the participants who had been recruited from January 2011 to April 2014. Self-administered standardized questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic factors, infant development and health, maternal mental status, etc. Air pollution levels in pre- and postnatal periods were estimated using a spatial interpolation technique (ordinary kriging) at children's residential addresses. Land-use types around participants' homes were evaluated using buffer analysis. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the relationships between child development delay and environmental factors. Results: In total, 228, 361, and 441 families completed child development forms at 6, 12, and 24 months of age, respectively. Our results indicated that prenatal exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm and O3 and postnatal exposure to NO2 were negatively associated with child development. Traffic-related land-use types, gas stations, and power generation areas around participants’ homes were also adversely correlated with child development. Moreover, poor maternal mental health was associated with child development delay. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure and postnatal exposure to air pollution were associated with development delay in children under 2 years of age, specifically those under 1 year of age, even after adjustment for land-use type and maternal mental status. Living environment is critical for the development of children under 2 years of age.
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