Effectively α-Terpineol Suppresses Glioblastoma Aggressive Behavior and Downregulates KDELC2 Expression

Jong Shiaw Jin, Jung Mao Chou, Wen Chiuan Tsai, Ying Chuan Chen, Ying Chen, Jiann Ruey Ong, Yu Ling Tsai

研究成果: 雜誌貢獻文章同行評審


Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is notorious for the aggressive behaviors and easily results in chemo-resistance. Studies have shown that the use of herbal medicines as treatments for GBM as limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glioma stem cells. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between GBM suppression and α-terpineol, the monoterpenoid alcohol derived from Eucalyptus glubulus and Pinus merkusii. Study Design: Using serial in-vitro and in-vivo studies to confirm the mechanism of α-terpineol on down-regulating GBM development. Methods: The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate IC50 of α-terpineol to inhibit GBM cell survival. In order to evaluate the impact of GBM aggressive behaviors by α-terpineol, the analysis of cell migration, invasion and colony formation were implemented. In addition, the ability of tumor spheres and WB of CD44 and OCT3/4 were evaluated under the impression of α-terpineol decreased GBM stemness. The regulation of neoangiogenesis by α-terpineol via the WB of angiogenic factors and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) tube assay. To survey the decided factors of α-terpineol downregulating GBM chemoresistance depended on the impact of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and autophagy-related factors activation. Additionally, WB and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT/PCR) of KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) containing 2 (KDELC2), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3k), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade signaling factors were examined to explore the mechanism of α-terpineol inhibiting GBM viability. Finally, the orthotopic GBM mouse model was applied to prove the efficacy and toxicity of α-terpineol on regulating GBM survival. Results: α-terpineol significantly suppressed GBM growth, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and temozolomide (TMZ) resistance. Furthermore, α-terpineol specifically targeted KDELC2 to downregulate Notch and PI3k/mTOR/MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, we also demonstrated that α-terpineol could penetrate the BBB to inhibit GBM proliferation, which resulted in reduced cytotoxicity to vital organs. Conclusion: Compared to published literatures, we firstly proved α-terpineol possessed the capability to inhibit GBM through various mechanisms and potentially decreased the occurrence of chemoresistance, making it a promising alternative therapeutic option for GBM in the future.
出版狀態已發佈 - 5月 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 分子醫學
  • 藥理
  • 藥學科學
  • 藥物發現
  • 補充和替代醫學


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