Background: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of metformin-based dual therapy versus triple therapy on glycemic control and lipid profile changes in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: In total, 60 patients were eligible for participation in this study. Patients received at least 24 months of metformin monotherapy, dual therapy, or triple therapy with metformin plus linagliptin (a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor) or dapagliflozin (a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor). Blood samples were collected from each patient, followed by evaluation of changes in their blood glucose control and lipid profile-related markers. Results: A combination of metformin and DPP4 and SGLT2 inhibitor therapy more effectively reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (p = 0.016) than metformin monotherapy. A combination of metformin and DPP4 and SGLT2 inhibitor therapy more effectively improved total cholesterol (Chol, p = 0.049) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than metformin monotherapy (p = 0.037). Metformin plus linagliptin dual therapy was more effective than metformin monotherapy in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, p = 0.011). Patients who received a combination of linagliptin and empagliflozin showed a significant reduction in their fasting blood glucose (p = 0.019), HbA1c (p = 0.036), and Chol (p = 0.010) compared with those who received linagliptin dual therapy. Furthermore, patients who received metformin plus dapagliflozin and saxagliptin showed significantly reduced Chol (p = 0.011) and LDL-C (p = 0.035) levels compared with those who received metformin plus dapagliflozin. Conclusion: In conclusion, dual therapy with metformin and linagliptin yields similar glycemic control ability to triple therapy. Among metformin combination triple therapy, triple therapy of empagliflozin and linagliptin might have a better glycemic control ability than dual therapy of linagliptin. Moreover, Triple therapy of dapagliflozin and saxagliptin might have a better lipid control ability than dual therapy of dapagliflozin.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
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