Calcium phosphate ceramics used in dentistry and orthopedics are some of the most valuable biomaterials, owing to their excellent osteoconduction, osteoinduction, and osseointegration. Osteoconduction and osteoinduction are critical targets for bone regeneration, and osseointegration is essential for any dental implantations. In this study, a hydroxyapatite (HAp) hybrid coating layer with the sequential release of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was deposited onto an etched titanium substrate by electrochemical deposition. The resulting release of BMP-2 from Ti-HAp was assessed by immersing samples in a simulated buffer fluid solution. Through coculture, human osteosarcoma cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed. The characteristics and effect on cell proliferation of the hybrid coatings were investigated for their functionality through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cell proliferation assays. Findings revealed that -0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl (3 M KCl) exhibited the optimal HAp properties and a successfully coated HAp layer. XRD confirmed the crystallinity of the deposited HAp on the titanium surface. Ti-0.8 V Ti-HAp co-coating BMP sample exhibited the highest cell proliferation efficiency and was more favorable for cell growth. A successful biocompatible hybrid coating with optimized redox voltage enhanced the osseointegration process. The findings suggest that this technique could have promising clinical applications to enhance the healing times and success rates of dental implantation.
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